By Mary N. Arai (auth.)
Scyphozoa have attracted the eye of many varieties of individuals. Naturalists watch their swish locomotion. Fishermen might dread the swarms that could hinder fishing or consume larval fish. Bathers retreat from the water in the event that they are stung. humans from a few Asiatic international locations consume the medusae. Comparative physiologists learn them as potentially basic versions for the functioning of assorted platforms. This e-book integrates information from these and different investigations right into a useful biology of scyphozoa. it is going to emphasize the wide variety of adaptive responses attainable in those morphologically fairly uncomplicated animals. The booklet will be aware of the examine of the final 35 years, partially simply because there was a speedy growth of data in the course of that interval, and partially simply because a lot of the former paintings was once summarized by means of books released among 1961 and 1970. Bibliographies of papers on scyphozoa have been incorporated in Mayer (1910) and Kramp (1961). Taxonomic diagnoses also are incorporated in these monographs, in addition to in a monograph at the scyphomedusae of the USSR released via Naumov (Naumov, 1961). so much impor tantly, a genenttion of scyphozoan staff has used as its 'bible' the monograph by way of F.S.Russell (1970) The Medusae of the British Isles. despite its restrictive identify, his booklet studies many of the info at the biology of scyphozoa as much as that date.
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Extra info for A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa
In the polyp of the coronate Atorella japonica a more dense nerve plexus forms a ring on the upper column below the tentacles (Matsuno and Kawaguti, 1991). The exumbrellar surface of the stauromedusa Haliclystus auricula is relatively insensitive to mechanical stimuli but the tentacles and oral surfaces are very sensitive (Gwilliam, 1960). The conducting system is diffuse, possibly due to a single nerve net. In the tentacles, axons are associated with basal myofilaments of the epitheliomuscular cells (Westfall, 1973).
1969). Each cell extends a kino cilium toward the hood and bears an axon at its proximal end. 34 Locomotion That the rhopalium acts as a gravity receptor can be shown by removing all but one of these sense organs. The contraction frequency of the medusa is then dependent on its vertical position relative to the remaining rhopalium. Early workers differed on which is the optimum position, (for review, see Passano, 1982). More recent workers agree that the contraction frequency is greatest when the remaining single rhopalium of Aurelia aurita or Cyanea sp.
The refractory period of the swimming muscle, during which the muscle cannot be restimulated, is also long. 7 seconds (Bullock, 1943). This prevents tetanic contractions resulting from the summing of the effects of successive stimuli and is necessary for the relaxation between repetitive swimming beats. The muscle contracts and relaxes at least partially before it can be restimulated. , 1955). Gwilliam (1960) recorded the contractions of stalk muscles of the stauromedusan Haliclystus auricula. His analysis was hindered by a considerable amount of spontaneous activity by the muscle.