By Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot
Автор - профессор истории Ближнего и Среднего Востока Калифорнийского Университета - в своей книге даёт краткий курс истории Египта - от завоевания государства арабами, через эпоху мамлюков, объединение Египта в Османской империи, либеральные эксперименты в конституционном правительстве в начале двадцатого столетия, продолжившиеся в годы Насера и Садата, до настоящего времени, характеризующегося появлением новых политических партий, укреплением исламского фундаментализма и постепенного изменения отношения к женщинам.Образцы сканов:
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Extra resources for A History of Egypt: From the Arab Conquest to the Present
At first the mamluks resorted to taxing the urban communities the age of the mamluks 39 more rapaciously than hitherto, which led to political turmoil and unrest among the mamluks themselves and between them and the population in general. Finally the mamluks monopolized the trade in spices and sugar to pay for their military expenditure and their luxury imports and, by thus establishing a state monopoly of spices and fixing the price of spices sold, they ruined the economic prosperity of the country, albeit for a limited period.
The anomaly of a Shii ruler, ruling through a Sunni vizier, who was also lieutenant to a Sunni ruler, was not lost on Saladin, a fervent Sunni, who determined to bring the Fatimi dynasty to an end. In the meantime prayers on Friday were recited in the names of both the Fatimi caliph and the Syrian ruler. The mention of the name of the ruler during the Friday prayers is one of the signs of kingship in Muslim lands. Saladin’s reputation among the Egyptians was enhanced by a series of skirmishes with Crusaders which ended in victory.
Hulagu’s forces, unchallenged by any army, moved westward to occupy Syria. The only army capable of standing up to the Mongols were the mamluks of Egypt, who under the leadership of Baibars defeated the Mongols in the battle of Ain Jalut (the Eye of Goliath). Baibars hoped to be rewarded by the governorship of the province of Syria for his victory, but when he was baulked in his ambitions he conspired with other mamluk amirs (generals), and they assassinated the mamluk general who had been placed on the throne and replaced him with Baibars in 1260.