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The reaction sequence as outlined has been partly deduced from the effect of inhibitors that are listed on top of the individual steps (see abbreviations). F 30 2. Photophosphorylation instead, a second light step is inserted at P-700 to raise the oxidation-reduction potential of electron flow to a level capable of reducing TPN. The energy is utilized for reductive purposes rather than for ATP formation. The scheme shown in Fig. 2-2 is very tentative and there is no general agreement on the identity of the individual electron transport carriers.

This means that X~Y and ATP could be generated by a gradient of either protons or of cations by reversal of the direction of flow. In fact, ATP formation has been demonstrated on dissipation of a proton gradient in chloroplasts (Jagendorf and Uribe, 1966) and of a potassium gradient in mitochondria (Cockrell et al, 1967). What is the evidence for A~X and X~P, the two other highenergy intermediates of oxidative phosphorylation? It is only fair to say that the evidence for either is neither convincing nor generally accepted.

We were faced here with an apparent paradox. We believe that CFi catalyzes the final transphosphorylation step in the formation of ATP from ADP and Pj. It should not therefore be required for the light-driven proton translocation which requires neither ADP nor Pj. The resistance of the process to energy transfer inhibitors and to C F Î antibody were experimental observations consistent with that notion. Why then is the presence of C F 2 still needed? This was one of the first experiments which led us to the concept of the dual roles of membrane components which I mentioned in the first lecture: CFi has a catalytic and a structural function.

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