By Walter H. Fertl
Petroleum formation pressures
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Additional info for Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources
The only direct fluid pressure measurement that has been made within the Great Valley section in the central or southern San Joaquin Valley indicates high fluid potentials. The regional chemistry of the lower Tertiary waters of the San Joaquin Valley (membrane effluent type) suggests that these waters have been extruded from a widely distributed series of mudstones and other rocks that are undergoing compaction. The presumed source for this widespread compacting sequence is the underlying Great Valley sediments with their postulated high fluid potentials.
Subsurface water distribution (after Powers, 1959; Burst, 1969). ) ABNORMALLY HIGH FORMATION PRESSURES 37 “Water, the principal fluid component of the sedimentary section, is thought to migrate in three separate stages. Initially, pore water and excessive (more than two) clay-water interlayers are removed by the action of overburden pressure. This initial water flow (which is essentially completed after the first few thousand feet of burial) reduces the water content of the sediment to about 30% most of which is in the semisolid interlayer form.
0 = Upper Another quite interesting field observation of subpressures and an artificial earthquake caused by fluid injection has been reported for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well (Evans, 1966). This chemical waste-water disposal well was drilled northeast of Denver in the DenverJulesburg Basin to a total depth of 12,045f t [3671m] , bottoming in Precambrian gneiss. Well tests made at a depth of 11,002 f t [3353 m] determined the pore pressure to be 4128 psi [290 kg/m2 1, indicating subnormal conditions.