Download Aboveground-Belowground Linkages: Biotic Interactions, by Richard D. Bardgett PDF

By Richard D. Bardgett

Aboveground-Belowground Linkages offers the main updated and complete synthesis of contemporary advances in our figuring out of the jobs that interactions among aboveground and belowground groups play in regulating the constitution and serve as of terrestrial ecosystems, and their responses to international swap. It charts the historic improvement of this box of ecology and evaluates what may be discovered from the new proliferation of reports at the ecological and biogeochemical importance of aboveground-belowground linkages. The booklet is based round 4 key issues: biotic interactions within the soil; plant group results; the position of aboveground shoppers; and the impression of species earnings and losses. A concluding bankruptcy attracts jointly this knowledge and identifies a couple of cross-cutting subject matters, together with attention of aboveground-belowground feedbacks that ensue at diverse spatial and temporal scales, the results of those feedbacks for atmosphere procedures, and the way aboveground-belowground interactions hyperlink to human-induced worldwide swap.

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Extra info for Aboveground-Belowground Linkages: Biotic Interactions, Ecosystem Processes, and Global Change (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution)

Sample text

While it is difficult to experimentally determine the contribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi to nutrient acquisition in situ, several studies suggest that some 80% of all plant nitrogen in Fig. 12 Extensive ectomycorrhizal hyphal networks forage for nutrients and excrete a range of extracellular enzymes that degrade complex organic compounds. Image by Damian P. Donnelly and Jonathan R. Leake, University of Sheffield Department of Animal & Plant Sciences, UK. 3 Influence of root-associated organisms • 37 boreal forests could be taken up through ectomycorrhizal fungi (Simard et al.

However, in some ecosystems, soil microbes are not a significant sink for nitrogen, especially when the availability of mineral nitrogen and rates of nitrification are high. For instance, 15N-tracer studies in tropical humid forests reveal that those ecosystems which typically lack nitrogen limitation are characterized by very rapid rates of nitrification and negligible microbial assimilation of nitrogen (Silver et al. 2001, 2005; Templer et al. 2008), especially when concentrations of mineral nitrogen in soil are high (Vitousek and Matson 1988).

10). For instance, during primary succession on glacial moraine in Alaska, nitrogen-fixing Alnus shrubs are known to increase soil nitrogen and organic matter content, thereby creating a more favourable environment for later successional tree species, especially Picea (Crocker and Major 1955; Chapin et al. 1994). Further, in New Zealand sand dunes, Lupinus herbs have been shown to facilitate the growth of Pinus trees through a similar mechanism of nutrient enhancement (Gadgill 1971), while the shrub Hippophäe has been found to promote plant biomass of later successional species in coastal Dutch sand dunes (Olff et al.

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