By K. Hamblin
This publication explores the adoption of 'active ageing' regulations through EU15 international locations and the influence on older peoples' paintings and retirement coverage recommendations. guidelines tested comprise unemployment advantages, lively labour industry rules, partial pension receipt, pension ideas, early retirement and incentives for deferral.
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Extra resources for Active Ageing in the European Union: Policy Convergence and Divergence
These arguments would suggest reform of policies for older people is part of a more complex interplay of political motivations as opposed to a reaction to demographic ageing and its impact on welfare arrangements and solidarity. f. Marx, 1973), viliﬁed and gloriﬁed at times of boom and slump respectively. Phillipson (2005) argues the ascendancy of capital gains over the needs of older people has meant that the priorities of the market guide policies. This, he argues, is exempliﬁed through the cycling of older workers into and out of the labour market as is required by the economy.
For Hills (1996), the welfare state distributes income across the individual’s life cycle as opposed to redistribution from one individual to another. However, what an individual has contributed over their lifecourse is not repaid to them in old age in exact quantities as inﬂation means to give people exactly what they paid in would consign them to poverty and social exclusion. Kohli (2005) argues the concerns around intergenerational conﬂict mask the more persistent intragenerational conﬂict that results from income disparities within cohorts.
Indeed, she argues population ageing and the associated negative effects are now deﬁned as ‘facts’, which obscures their political nature: “[t]he socially constructed ‘problem’, and the remedies invoked on the policy level, are related, ﬁrst, to the capacity of powerful and strategically located 20 Active Ageing in the European Union interests and classes to deﬁne ‘the problem’ and to press their views into public consciousness and, second, to the objective facts of the situation. Note the order of inﬂuence: power and class, ﬁrst; facts, second” (Estes, 1999a: 135).