By Daizhong Su, Qingbin Zhang, Shifan Zhu
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Extra resources for Advanced design and manufacture II
97W, and the higher of the COP, the lower of the total thermal resistance is noticed. When pumping power is increased to 5W and 7W, COP values are decreased. 92W, respectively. Also, it can be found that, for a fixed Qte, thermal resistance decreased with Qm increased, this tendency is the same for all cases. Fig. 2. Temperature distributions: (a) Qte=3W; (b) Qte=5W; (c) Qte=7W. 36 Advanced Design and Manufacture II To implement the TEC to freezing chuck, a design case is simulated by the aforementioned TEC model and temperature distribution is computed by COMSOL software.
The Young’s modulus of each element is represented as Ee = ( xe )α Eo where α is a penalty factor. The u is the displacement along load F. t. i =1 − Va ≤ 0 (2) 0 < xmin ≤ xi ≤ xmax (3) 2. Select the suitable material volume fraction ( Va ) in the sequence such as 20%, 25%, …, 80%. 3. Execute the optimization problem in step 1 according to each allowable Va in step 2. 4. Modify the optimum layout obtained in step 3 by a threshold strategy. The layout after modification is prepared for a reasonable finite element analysis (FEA).
The shape of body is allowed to vary under the boundary conditions within the design domain indicated as Ω . The optimization algorithm used in this work is the one of approximation techniques called the method of moving asymptotes (MMA) [5, 6]. The proposed integrated design and process including topology optimization with empirical approximate constraint is stated as follows. 1. Formulate the optimization problem of minimizing the compliance using Eq. (1) to (3) where each xi represents the relative material density in ith finite element ( xe )i , expressed in ρ = xe ρ o .