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By Hanns J. Prem

Outlines the drastically lengthy and intricate cultural historical past of Mesoamerica, in addition to the Andean continuum. It combines an outline of pre-Columbian ancient occasions and occasions with a attention of significant examine difficulties and efforts and areas the final flowering of indigenous complicated civizations inside their respective geographic and sociocultural frameworks.

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Extra info for Ancient Americas: A Brief History and Guide to Research

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Rather, Tula inherited the significance of Teotihuacán as a central manufacturer of obsidian as well as miner of the volcanic glass at Pachuca, which Teotihuacán had begun to do. This craft apparently occupied half of the inhabitants. They also worked travertine into transparent vessels and made ceramics. In addition to a pompous ceremonial center Tula contained widely spread living quarters for its approximately thirty thousand inhabitants. SOCIAL STRUCTUREThe main ceremonial area was full of architectural innovations that indicate decisive sociocultural changes.

The simple hypotheses based on one main reason, which have so far been suggested in large numbers, usually are not satisfactory explanations. As far as can be recognized now there had to have been multileveled effect contexts, chief among them a drastically worsening ecological situation due to overuse of arable land. RESCUE ATTEMPTSA conspicuous omen of the collapse was something like the overheating of culture. It seems as if the Maya elite were aware of dangerous problems, but according to their contemporary world view saw causes that by modern standards were incorrect.

But even from remote areas like Oaxaca there were people who lived in their own quarters in Teotihuacán and followed their own customs there. More and more a shift of emphasis from religious-ceremonial to civil areas of life can be noted. Page 9 STRATIFICATION OF THE POPULATIONStatements about the presence of social groups can be supported only by indirect evidence. At the head of society there were administration officials; possibly the same persons held the higher priestly offices (a theocratic system often is visualized).

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