Download Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate by Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner PDF

By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner

Faculties of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of three-d aggregation. masking either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via quite a few disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to many of the equipment, typically optical and acoustic, used to gather three-d facts over the years. the second one part specializes in analytical tools used to quantify trend, crew kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the staff. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution offers with the services of aggregative habit from the viewpoint of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of versions to explain how crew dynamics on the person point creates emergent trend on the point of the gang.

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Extra resources for Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate

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Graves (1977) used a slowly sinking camera to attempt to measure the density of fish photographically as the device sank through schools of anchovies. Klimley and Brown (1983) used stereophotography to measure size and spacing of hammerhead sharks and Aoki et al. ). Graves localized the fish spatially in 3-D by assuming that the animals were all the same size, so that smaller images represented fish that were farther from the camera. A stereophotographic approach avoids this objection, but it is still limited in range by the attenuation of light in seawater and the opacity of fish to light.

3. The geometric basis of stereovision. most versatile stereoviewing systems currently available is based on the polarized projection system. Using a high-resolution graphics monitor, interlaced images are projected through a synchronized liquid crystal shutter so that differently polarized images are consecutively presented to the viewer. The viewer wears appropriately polarized glasses to view the stereomodel. Stereo-image alternation systems use synchronized mechanical shutters to alternately obscure the projected image and interrupt the observer's line of sight for the left and then the right eye.

Relative orientation is a function of the position and the angular orientation of one camera relative to the other. Relative orientation parameters are usually solved for analytically by comparing the positions of image points that appear in each photograph. Either the coplanarity or collinearity condition can be used to solve for the position and orientation of the two cameras in an arbitrary coordinate system. Direct measurement of the orientation and position of the cameras is usually not sufficient to determine relative orientation because it is difficult to physically locate the perspective center.

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