Download Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. The by D. H. Griffiths and R. F. King (Auth.) PDF

By D. H. Griffiths and R. F. King (Auth.)

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Read or Download Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. The Elements of Geophysical Prospecting PDF

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Extra info for Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. The Elements of Geophysical Prospecting

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We consider in this chapter only the procedures for shallow ( < 100 m) refraction work and for conventional reflection prospecting which covers the depth range from a few hundred to a few thousand metres. 2 Seismic Sources The source should ideally provide a pulse of duration of no more than a few milliseconds and large amplitude and should be safe, cheap and repeatable. All these requirements are reasonably well fulfilled by the small explosive charge fired in a hole up to a few tens of metres deep which was used almost exclusively in the early days of seismic prospecting, but a wide variety of non-explosive sources has now been added to the conventional "shot".

The shallow minimum in velocity at very high porosities corresponds to the stage when grain contacts are minimal and compaction increases the density more rapidly than the elastic moduli. 18) in which Vf and Vm are the velocities of the fluid porefiller and of the 4 'matrix" of granular material. This equation is useful for estimating 28 Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers Vm Fig. 14 Dependence of P-wave velocity on porosity in dry and saturated rocks of grain matrix velocity Vm. porosity 0 from velocity or vice versa, using Vf == 300 m s ~l or 1500 ms _ 1 for dry and saturated rocks respectively, and a value of Vm, appropriate to the composition, which will rarely lie outside the range 5000-6000 m s -1 .

8), but multi-channel data of the common depth-point type have to undergo a complex sequence of corrections and other processing before the section is produced. The first correction is known as the datum, weathering or static correction and is of particular importance in land surveys. It allows for the effect on reflection travel times of irregularities in surface topography and of the thickness and velocity of the low-velocity layer (LVL) or weathered layer which extends to depths of up to tens of metres.

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