By Maria Cristina Annesini, Luigi Marrelli, Vincenzo Piemonte, Luca Turchetti
Artificial organs might be regarded as small-scale method crops, during which warmth, mass and momentum move operations and, in all likelihood, chemical changes are conducted. This booklet proposes a unique research of man-made organs in keeping with the common bottom-up procedure utilized in approach engineering. ranging from an outline of the basic physico-chemical phenomena interested in the method, the full procedure is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations.
Each man made organ is gifted with a quick advent supplied by way of professional clinicians. units well-known in scientific perform are reviewed and their functionality is classed and in comparison through the use of a mathematical version dependent strategy. when mathematical modelling is a primary instrument for quantitative descriptions of medical units, types are saved easy to stay enthusiastic about the basic gains of every process.
Postgraduate scholars and researchers within the box of chemical and biomedical engineering will locate that this e-book offers a unique and useful gizmo for the research of present units and, in all probability, the layout of recent ones. This process can be beneficial for scientific researchers who are looking to get a deeper perception into the elemental operating rules of synthetic organs.
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32) while if λ ≥ 1, K s = 0 . 33) p where cs is the solute concentration in the pore and K v and K D are the hindrance coefficients that depend on λ . 5, since the large solute molecules tend to move near the center of the pore, where the velocity is higher. The solute flux is then obtained by integrating Eq. 33 with the boundary condip tions z = 0, cs = K s cs1 and z = δ, cs = K s cs2 . 5 Mass Transport in the Bulk Solution In the previous sections, driving forces in flux expressions were given in terms of concentration or osmotic pressure differences between the two fluid phases at the interface with the membrane.
1 Flux Definitions Transmembrane differences in solute concentrations and hydrostatic pressure cause different types of fluxes across the membrane: • mass flux of each component, defined as the mass flow rate per unit surface area of the membrane; in particular, the solvent (water) flux, Jw , and the solute flux, Js , must be considered. 8) where ci is the concentration of component i and u i its velocity. • the volumetric flux, Jv , defined as the volumetric flow rate per unit surface area of the membrane; actually, Jv is equivalent to the bulk velocity, u, of the solution that flows through the membrane.
2 in Eq. 3) For diluted ideal solutions,3 Eq. 4) where cs is the molar concentration of the solute. 4 indicates that in diluted solutions, osmotic pressure does not depend on the characteristics of the solute; as a consequence, when several solutes are present, the osmotic pressure depends on the total concentration of all solutes, regardless of the specific composition of the solution. Furthermore, in the presence of dissociating solutes, as in the case of a strong electrolyte that completely dissociates in water, osmotic pressure is affected by the concentration of all species in the solution, including those deriving from the dissociation; in this case, it is convenient to write Eq.