By Michael Mendillo, Andrew Nagy, J. H. Waite Jr.
Published by means of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.
Atmospheres are an important elements of our universe. they're the one observable areas of stars and monstrous planets, either inside of and past our sunlight method. a few terrestrial-size our bodies (Venus, Earth, Mars, Titan and Triton) have everlasting atmospheres whereas others (e.g., Mercury, Moon, Io, and Europa) have tenuous gaseous envelopes that vary day-by-day. Comets are tiny our bodies via planetary yardsticks, yet their atmospheres could be the biggest noticeable gadgets within the evening sky. Atmospheric technological know-how strives to appreciate how any such diversified set of atmospheres shape, evolve, and disappear.
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Extra info for Atmospheres in the Solar System: Comparative Aeronomy
Overview of the Voyager ultravi olet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter, J. Geophys. , 86, 8259-8284, 1981. Clancy, R. , and H. Nair, Annual (perihelion-aphelion) cycles in the photochemical behavior of the global Mars atmosphere, J. Geophys. , 1 0 1 , 12,785-12,790, 1996. Clarke, J. , Hubble Space Telescope imaging of Jupiter's UV aurora during the Galileo orbiter mission, J. Geophys. , 103, 20,217-20,236, 1998. Connerney J. E. , M. H. Acufia, N. F. Ness, and T. Satoh, New models of Jupiter's magnetic fields constrained by the Io flux tube footprint, J.
27 F i g u r e 1. , 2000a, Fig. 3]. Radical species are outlined by ovals and stable molecules by rectangles. forming higher hydrocarbons on Saturn, and is repre sentative for all t h e giant planets. , CO and CO2. Similar products may be intro duced by "injections" of material from t h e deeper at mospheres, where they are in thermal equilibrium. 4- Io, Titan, Triton, and Pluto Atmospheres T h e atmosphere of Io is mainly SO2 and has a rel atively simple photochemistry, t h e most recent models of which are by Summers and Strobel  and Wong and Johnson .
2000a]. Methyl reactions are also important, how ever, and the primary source of ethane is 2 C H + M —» C2H6 + M. 2 x 1 0 - e n 3 4 9 1 / T CH + H 3 However, the formation of higher hydrocarbons on the giant planets is strongly curtailed by the presence of large amounts of H, which is very good at cracking C-C bonds. , C e H and other aromatics), at least on Jupiter—the hydrocarbon chem istry schemes can get quite involved. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the major photochemical pathways for 6 GLADSTONE E T A L .