Download Biology of the Leaf Miners by Prof. E. Martin Hering (auth.) PDF

By Prof. E. Martin Hering (auth.)

The improvement of specialized feeding behavior throughout the process time through humans is paralleled within the majority of animals, particularly have built detailed peculiarities, and bug larvae which regularly are really attribute of the species involved. this is applicable particularly to phytophagous insect larvae, and an individual with the needful event can say with a good measure of simple task which insect larva is answerable for any harm to be chanced on on a plant. It leaves at the back of a distinct "feeding development" that may be in comparison to a "visiting card" on which the genus and species are marked in runic characters. Whoever has realized to learn the runes can conveniently be certain who has been feeding at the affected spot, exclusively at the easy of the "visiting card" left in the back of. From the recognized elements - the identify of the plant and the kind of feeding patter- and after a few examine of a few of the sorts of plant infestation, either the genus and species of the larva generating the feeding trend may be labored out easily. the significance of "feeding trend research" has now a long way outstripped the successes to be got via common gathering. formerly, whilst wishing to record the species of bugs found in any given locality they have been stuck with the web, by means of sugaring and different tools. This continuously ended in a truly faulty "list" of the bugs actually latest within the locality concerned.

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45 Fig. 46 FIg. 48 Fig. 45. Ventral view of mining saw-fly larva. Fig. 46. Curculionidae: Rhynchaenus salicis L. Fig. 47. Fig. 48. FIg. 47 Buprestid: Trachys min uta L. Considerably modified coleopterous larva (Rhamphus). capsule is always well developed and always has only one pair of eyespots (stemmata). The body is invariably very pale and the bright colours are lacking which characterise so many free-living saw-fly larvae and many caterpillars of mining Lepidoptera. The egg is always inserted inside the leaf and the saw-fly has a piercing apparatus for ovipositing, the sheath of which is often very important in classification.

The structure of the respiratory processes and mouth parts can best be investigated, after leaving the larva for a while in a 4 % solution of Potassium hydroxide, when the detailed parts become readily visible. The spiracles on the anterior respiratory processes are frequently arranged in a semi-circular arc (fig. 35), in other cases they may appear in two groups and the processes are then called "twohorned" (Fig. 36). In many species of Hydrellia the posterior processes bear only simple spiracles, which can be drawn up into a spike and inserted into the plant tissue (Fig.

Some of these species mine only very small blotches and then immediately seek out a fresh part of the leaf or a new leaf and produce in this way a large number of small blotch mines. This can be seen very clearly in Coleophora juscocuprella HS. in the leaves of Corylus, which as a result of this infestation often look as though they have been lightly spotted. The species of Coleophora which are especially predestined to frequent change of domicile by their case-bearing habits derive the advantage from these frequent changes that enemies on their track have far greater difficulty in finding the living larva, owing to the majority of mined blotches being empty.

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