By Joyce Y Wong; Joseph D Bronzino
Content material: metal biomaterials / Joon B. Park and younger Kon Kim -- Ceramic biomaterials / W.C. Billotte -- Polymeric biomaterials / Hai Bang Lee, Gilson Khang, and Jin Ho Lee -- Composite biomaterials / Roderic S. Lakes -- Biodegradable hydrogels : tailoring houses and serve as via chemistry and constitution / Andrew T. Metters and Chien-Chi Lin -- Biodegradable polymeric biomaterials : an up-to-date evaluate / Chih-Chang Chu -- Biologic biomaterials : tissue-derived biomaterials (collagen) / Shu-Tung Li -- gentle tissue replacements / K.B. Chandran, K.J.L. Burg, and S.W. Shalaby -- not easy tissue replacements / Sang-Hyun Park ... [et al.] -- Controlling and assessing cell-biomaterial interactions on the micro- and nanoscale : purposes in tissue engineering / Jessica Kaufman, Joyce Y. Wong, and Catherine Klapperich
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Extra info for Biomaterials
Biomed. Mater. Res. 37, 267–275. Further Reading American Society for Testing and Materials. 1992. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 13, Medical Devices and Services, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. I. 1977. Stainless steels in medical devices, in Handbook of Stainless Steels. Peckner, D. , Eds. pp. 1–10, McGraw-Hill, New York. G. 1959. Metals and Engineering in Bone and Joint Surgery, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. W. 1984. W. , pp. 66–91, Noyes, Park Ridge, NJ.
Since the bonding between the layers is stronger than the van der Waals force, it has been suggested that the layers are cross-linked. However, the remarkable lubricating property of graphite cannot be attained unless the cross-links are eliminated [Park and Lakes, 1992]. The poorly crystalline carbons are thought to contain unassociated or unoriented carbon atoms. 2. Properties of individual crystallites seem to be highly anisotropic. However, if the crystallites are randomly dispersed, the aggregate becomes isotropic [Park and Lakes, 1992].
Stainless steels contain enough chromium to confer corrosion resistance by passivity. The passive layer is not as robust as in the case of titanium or the cobalt chrome alloys. Only the most corrosion resistant of the stainless steels are suitable for implants. These are the austenitic types — 316, 316L, and 317, which contain molybdenum. Even these types of stainless steel are vulnerable to pitting and to crevice corrosion around screws. The phases of dental amalgam are passive at neutral pH, the transpassive potential for the γ2 phase is easily exceeded, due to interphase galvanic couples or potentials due to differential aeration under dental plaque.