By Anja K. E. Horn-Bochtler, Jean A. Büttner-Ennever (auth.), Peter Urban, Louis R Caplan (eds.)
The brainstem comprises various pathways connecting diverse mind components and the spinal twine, neural networks with coordinating initiatives, and brainstem nuclei. therefore its topography is advanced, or even skilled neurologists locate it difficult to localize brainstem lesions and diagnose brainstem problems. This richly illustrated ebook presents a finished evaluation of brainstem problems and offers the suitable medical wisdom important for prognosis. the hole sections record the brainstem neuroanatomy and talk about present diagnostic tools. the complete spectrum of medical findings in brainstem issues is then defined, and topodiagnostic points of the neurological findings are defined intimately. The descriptions of mind stem problems are regularly dependent and are supported via many MR photographs and brief case experiences. as well as fundamental brainstem lesions, akin to vascular brainstem syndromes, different problems are thought of that don't solely exhibit brainstem indicators or symptoms, e.g., a number of sclerosis. This ebook will function a useful reference paintings for neurologists in scientific perform or extra education.
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Extra info for Brainstem Disorders
G. the red nucleus and the cranial nerve nuclei. 10 Dorsal view of the reticular formation and neuromodulatory brainstem nuclei. Shown on the left side is a schematic representation of the cytoarchitecture of the reticular formation whereby a medial magnocellular part can be differentiated from a lateral parvocellular part. Shown against a gray background is the region of the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF), which is important in the generation of horizontal saccades. The right side shows brainstem nuclear groups with neuromodulatory function.
Respiratory Reflexes Inspiration and the final phase of expiration are active motor activities and are controlled by cervical and thoracic motor neurons (C3–C5; phrenic nerve, T6–T12; intercostal nerve). The respective relay circuit is located in the caudal brainstem. There the inspiratory premotor neurons are situated in the lateral solitary tract nucleus and form a dorsomedial respiratory group. Their axons project, among others, to the motoneurons of the diaphragm (C3–C7) in the spinal cord.
Within the red nucleus a caudal magnocellular part can be differentiated from a rostral parvocellular one. The nucleus receives its main inputs from the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum, and sends efferent axons to the inferior olive and the spinal cord; the cells in the magnocellular part are the origin of the rubrospinal tract. , 2004). 16). Here the areas with representation of the hand and wrist receive the largest number of terminals. The magnocellular part of the red nucleus receives inputs from the motor cortex and is connected via reciprocal projections with the emboliform and globosus nuclei of the spinocerebellum.