By Toni Erskine
Can associations (in the experience of formal companies) endure tasks and be ascribed blame within the comparable manner that we comprehend person humans to be morally liable for activities? the belief of the "institutional ethical agent" is seriously tested within the guise of states, transnational agencies, the UN, NATO and foreign society within the context of a few of the main serious and debated concerns and occasions in diplomacy, together with the Kosovo crusade, improvement relief, and genocide in Rwanda.
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Additional info for Can Institutions Have Responsibilities?: Collective Moral Agency and International Relations (Global Issues)
On the other hand, while nations might claim identities that are both independent of their constitutive memberships and that exist over time, they lack decision-making structures and, therefore, are not candidates for moral agency. 18 Transnational corporations and transnational NGOs, such as Oxfam, Médecins Sans Frontières, and Amnesty International, all qualify as institutional moral agents according to the above criteria. However, an emerging subcategory of networking institution – the Internet – lacks a central decision-making structure and, therefore, does not qualify.
The prominence of issues such as environmental degradation, humanitarian intervention, and global inequality in the distribution of resources and wealth challenges the theorist of international relations not only to recognize moral obligations that are transnational in scope, but also to ask the difficult question of who, or what, is to bear these responsibilities. Providing an answer to this question requires an understanding of the complex and diverse bodies that act in the international arena.
In this case, whatever attaches to the group attaches to all those persons who make up the group, and the group is therefore to be understood as some sort of aggregate of its component parts. Many groups of individuals do assume responsibility for the actions of any or all of their number in this way, and the law acknowledges a wide range of such relationships. In the legal arena the most familiar instances of such groups are, what are usually called, ‘partnerships’: where one of the partners incurs some liabilities, all of the partners have to pay; and when the group goes bankrupt, all of the partners, if the debts are large, are liable to go bankrupt as well.